AGMA B05 Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gear – Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf) or read online. AGMA B05 Metallurgical. AGMA B Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing. standard by American Gear Manufacturers Association,. View all product details. Most Recent . 8 Aug AGMA B05 – Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing/钢制齿轮冶金技术 条件.

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From this work, they determined that the stress intensity was related to the agma 923-b05 root area of the defect in the plane normal to the principal stress, 923–b05 they developed agma 923-b05 stress intensity equation as agma 923-b05 function of the square root area of an inclusion as follows:.

At the time of initial development, the editions shown were valid. Figure 7 shows the calculated mean-free paths for the globular oxide inclusions greater than 10 mm in square root area and stringers longer than mm in length.

Murakami proposes that a 30, mm 2 be used, which equates to a reduced variate value of 5.

Direct-hardening unalloyed and low-alloyed wrought steel in form of different black products ISO Murakami and co-workers [15] used stress analysis to evaluate a broad range of defect shapes and sizes, under a range of loading conditions.

Under high contact stress conditions of approximately MPa, a 10 agma 923-b05 inclusion is predicted 923-g05 be of a critical size, while for qgma root bending stress of approximately MPa, a agma 923-b05 mm inclusion is predicted to be of a critical size.

## Gear Design Relevant Cleanness Metrics

Early in the running of this gear, the bending stresses, combined with the inclusion, were large enough to result in a stress intensity that exceeded the agma 923-b05, Kth, hence agmz a fatigue crack to initiate at the inclusion. Figure 3 b shows the raw data in histogram form for agma 923-b05 stringer oxide inclusions lengths per square millimeter. Lean Manufacturing April 18, It is important to point out agma 923-b05 the SEV value is useful in considering what the largest likely inclusion in the steel is, but it does not provide information about the number density of inclusions that exceed a critical value.

Figure 10 illustrates the test procedure for performing a LEFM crack agma 923-b05 rate test xgma. These histograms are particularly useful in comparing the inclusion population between the agma 923-b05 steel sources and in considering the concentration of inclusions greater than 10 or 20 mm ayma stringers longer than and mm for each steel source.

TimkenSteel has developed a agma 923-b05 gear life model that allows the simulation of stresses in gears in a baseline state, without inclusions, and then again agma 923-b05 inclusions.

Quantitative stereology [7], agma 923-b05 can be used to predict the mean-free path between inclusions or the volumetric concentration of inclusions based on the measured unit area data.

These 48 metallurgical samples are prepared on the longitudinal plane and agma 923-b05. Oxide particles in steel typically agka of aluminum, magnesium, calcium, or silicon oxide compounds or phases. Once the worst 0. Similarly, if the same automotive ring gear is determined to have 0. To produce and agma 923-b05 steel to Ultrapremium air-melted quality, TimkenSteel employs advanced vacuum refining and teaming practices and measures the steel cleanness with SEM image agma 923-b05 and statistical evaluation.

In order to provide a more direct linkage between gear design and steel cleanness effects on gear fatigue performance, some further analytical processes can be performed on these automated SEM image analysis data. Future of gear design relies on overcoming present. As a result, the current work cannot provide a figure for oxide stringers equivalent to Figure agmz. Topics related to gear design and rating, such as case depth, stress numbers, and quality control sampling plans are not aggma in this document.

TimkenSteel can produce any of its grades to this new steel micro-cleanness standard. If it is agmx that inclusions greater than 10 mm represent a risk for failure at stress levels exceeding MPa, then the gear design 293-b05 can 923-b005 the design and determine what volume of gear is exposed to principal stresses of MPa and higher.

Agma 923-b05 leftmost photo shows a gear tooth that has fractured off of the gear.

### Gear Design Relevant Cleanness Metrics | Gear Solutions Magazine Your Resource to the Gear Industry

Forty-eight samples from six locations in the heat are collected from front, middle, and back portions of the heat and top and agma 923-b05 positions of the ingot.

Inclusions can be placed 923-b0 by agma 923-b05 user to study various scenarios. Micro inclusions at the surface of a gear can be directly considered from these data, while doing so for stringers would require that the gear be machined from bar stock such that all stressed surfaces are along the original longitudinal plane to be directly considered.

As a result, the Agma 923-b05 value agmaa best used in conjunction with other metrics described in the following section. Figure 8 shows a comparison of the number of inclusions greater than 10 mm and greater than 20 mm in square root area per cubic 92-3b05. The stress intensity at the crack tip is then varied, and the rate of crack growth is measured.

Comparing Figure 3 a to Agma 923-b05 3 b, one notes that the population of stringers tends to agma 923-b05 about one order of magnitude less than the micro inclusion concentrations.

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All standards are subject to revision, agma 923-b05 parties agma 923-b05 agreements based on this document are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards shown below.

Similarly, volumetric inclusion populations can be used to populate loading models, in combination with Amga Carlo simulation, to predict relative agma 923-b05 life between different populations.

The results indicate that a 12 to 30 percent weight reduction can be achieved with Ultrapremium steel or a 10 to 35 percent increase in torque capacity with 923-h05 same gear using Ultrapremium steel. This edition of the information sheet, Agma 923-b05 B05, incorporates changes to item 8, microstructure, of table 1, Metallurgical characteristics agma 923-b05 through hardened gearing. For D type globular oxides, the worst 0. The volumetric inclusion concentration can be considered against the stressed volume of a gear, and the probability of encountering a critically sized inclusion agma 923-b05 a gear or a agma 923-b05 of gears can be estimated.

However, this method does not provide inclusion metrics that are relevant to gear design, and it cannot provide the statistically robust data needed to predict gear performance. When there is a greater population of inclusions, more of the agma 923-b05 in the Monte Carlo set exhibited inclusions in load zones. A wide range of other geometric measures can be selected as needed. This capability then facilitates the systematic study and optimization of steelmaking practices to minimize oxide inclusion population agma 923-b05.

Figure 3 a shows the raw data from automated SEM image analysis in the form of a histogram for micro globular oxide inclusion per square millimeter. No further operator interaction is needed until the analysis is completed and the system is ready for 923-b5 next carousel of samples. With SEV analysis, one can use the population of agma 923-b05 measured 923b05 a limited, but statistically robust set of samples to predict a worst case or maximum likely inclusion size.

The statistics of extreme values technique [4] applied to inclusion populations has been described in detail by Murakami [5], [6] and are summarized agma 923-b05. Carmona Gear Cutting December 17, In the laboratory, one can apply known cyclic stress intensity to a crack and evaluate the threshold stress intensity, K thor the minimum stress intensity required to begin to drive crack growth. Monte Carlo simulations agma 923-b05 run comparing Ultrapremium to SBQ 1 and SBQ 2 agma 923-b05 order to assess the potential for light weighting Figure 12 or increased torque capacity Figure 13 while maintaining fatigue performance.

Each of the first three steels were produced by electric arc furnace and vacuum refining, and each meet AGMA grade 3 and ASTM A [3] bearing steel quality requirements agma 923-b05 oxide inclusion cleanness. The statistics of extreme values SEV can be used to predict the single largest inclusion likely in the steel, enabling the gear design engineer to consider the worst-case inclusion.

Figure 1 agma 923-b05 an example agmma EDS analysis of a macro oxide stringer inclusion. As repeated cycles were applied, the crack continued to grow, and the crack tip stress intensity continued to increase. The Y lim value for the extrapolation is calculated based on the return period, T, and the relevant avma as follows:.

A total reference area A tot is selected, which is used to provide a limit for performing an extrapolation of the data set in order to predict the SEV value.